De humeris

Humeros homo habet maiores respectu

 corporis aliis animalibus ad portandum

 et sustinendum onus. Humeri creati sunt 

ex ossibus fortibus, constituti et ad 

sustinendam lesionem, carne in ea parte 

fortiori. Hiis insunt scapule ossa lata

tenuia, que et debite latitudini

humerorum satisfacerent, carnem

fulcientes in ambitu, et tenuitate

moderata elegentiam pectoris

non fedarent.


Humeros si dolueris ex onere vel ex

labore equitandi aut quacumque ex

causa, gallinatio adipe ad ignem perunge.

Sequenti nocte, si non cessaverit dolor

vino calido in dicto adipe resoluto

humeros fove. Item dyaltea ad hoc valet.

Si dolor non cessat, sanguinem sub

scapulis extrahe cum flebotomo. Item

rutam in aceto coctam superpone. Item

lanam intinctam vino bullienti


About shoulders: A man has larger shoulders, with respect for the body, than other animals to carry and support a load. Shoulders were created from strong bones, arranged to sustain an injury, by stronger flesh in this part. The thin, broad bones of the shoulder blade belong to these, so that they can satisfy the width of the shoulders, supporting the flesh in a rotation, and also to not join the elegance of the chest with moderate thinness. 

If you are hurting at the shoulders from a burden or from the work of riding horseback or from whatever cause, apply chicken fat to the inflammation. On the following night, if the pain has not ceased, keep the shoulders warm with warm wine dissolved in said fat. Likewise, dialthea is effective for this. If the pain does not cease, extract blood under the shoulder blades with a scalpel. Likewise, place rue cooked in vinegar (on it). Likewise wool saturated in bubbling(/boiling) wine.

humerus, humeri m II: shoulder

respectus, respectus m IV : regard, consideration, respect (for) (+ gen.)

sustineo, sustinere, sustinui II: support, sustain, restrain, control

onus, oneris n II: burden, load

ossum, ossi n II: bone, kernel, stone

constituti: noun constitutum, constituti, n II (genitive, singular) arrangement, agreement

laesiō, laesiōnis, f III: harm, injury

caro, carnis f III: flesh, meat, pulp of a fruit, body

insum, inesse, infui IRR: I belong to, I am, in, going on, involved in or with

scapulae, scapularum f pl I: shoulder blades

tenuis, tenuis, tenue III: thin, fine, slender, weak, watery, slight, trifling, delicate, subtle

debeo, debere, debui, debitus II: owe

latitudo, latitudinis f. III: width, breadth, extent; latitude

satisfacio, satisfacere, satisfeci, satisfactum (+DAT) III:  satisfy, content, secure, pay off, apologize, make amends

fulcio, fulcire, fulsi, fultum IV: prop up, support

ambitus, ambitus m IV: circuit, orbit, revolution, cycle, periphrastic, circumlocution, show, ostentation, vanity, bribery, environment

tenuitas, tenuitatis f III: thinness 

moderatus, moderata, moderatum I/II: mitigated, managed, controlled, moderated 

elegantia, elegantiae f I: elegance, taste, propriety, grace

pectus, pectoris n III: chest, breast, (figuratively)soul, heart, spirit, mind, understanding, person, individual 

faedarent: to join

doleo, dolere, dolui II: to grieve for; feel or suffer pain

equito, equitare, equitavi, equitatum I: ride horseback

quacumque adv: wherever

causa, causae f I: cause, reason; occasion; pretence (with gen.= because of)

gallinatius, gallinatia, gallinatium I/II: of a chicken

adeps, adipis m/f III: fat, lard, grease

perungo, perungere, perunxi, perunctum III: thoroughly anoint/rub/smear with oil, grease, etc.

cesso, cessare, cassavi, cessatum I: be remiss/inactive; hold back; leave off; delay; stop, cease

vinum, vini n II: wine

calidus, calida, calidum I/II: warm, hot; fiery

resolvo, resolvere, resolvi, resolutum III: release, disperse, melt, dissolve

foveo, fovere, fovi, fotus II: keep warm; foster, maintain

Item adv: likewise, similarly; besides, also

dyalt(h)ea, dyalt(h)eae f I: althea officinalis, a plant also known as marsh mallow

valeo, valere, valui II: be healthy, be strong

extraho, extrahere, extraxi, extractum III: draw out, extract

flebotomum, flebotomi n: a surgical tool with which a vein is cut

ruta, rutae f I: rue (a plant with medicinal properties)

acetum, aceti n II: vinegar

coquo, coquere, coxi, coctus III: cook; boil, fry; stir up

superpono, superponere, superposui, superpositum III: place over or on top of

lana, lanae f I: wool, fleece; soft hair; down

inting(u)o, inting(u)ere, intinxi, intinctum III:  dip/plunge in; saturate, steep; cause to soak in

bullio, bullire, bullivi, bullitus IV: bubble, boil; make bubbles

lesionem laesionem

fortiori ablative of cause

Hiis later spelling of his, dative plural of demonstrative pronoun hic, haec, hoc (this, these). Antecedent is humeri.

scapule scapulae

que quae, feminine nominative plural form of relative pronoun qui, quae, quod. Antecedent is scapulae. This best understood as a relative clause of purpose. 

debite debitae, takes the dative 

lesio laesio

fedare faedare

et tenuitate… non fedarent the idea is an aesthetic one, i.e. it would look strange if the shoulder blades were too thin, and this would not fit well with the “elegance of the chest”. Thus, humans have wide shoulders. 

Dyaltea Dialthea

Althaea officinalis, or marsh-mallow: a perennial species used in herbalism. A confection has been made from the root since ancient Egyptian times. The generic name, Althaea, is derived from the Greek ἄλθειν (to cure), from its supposed healing properties.

dyaltea ad hoc valet literally, “dialthea is strong toward this”

flebotomum a surgical tool with which a vein is cut, similar to a scalpel 

rutam rue plant

Rue can be applied as a compress to painful areas, and can alleviate swelling in sore muscles. It contains high levels of rutin and coumarin, and other chemical compounds that make it great for relieving nerve and muscle pain, as well as reducing inflammation.