… silvestri. Aper silvester, ut dicit Liber rerum, bestia fortis est, que nullam doctrinam bonorum morum recipit unquam, sed semper seva et ferox et ferox est. Nigri coloris est. Dentes magnos et recurvos habet semipedalis longitudinis, qui incisionibus apti sunt. Sed hoc satis mirabile est in dentibus, quod scilicet in viva bestia idem possunt quod ferrum, detracti vero mortue vim incisionis perdidisse probantur. Apro silvestri quidam truces homines seculi signari possunt, qui ad litteram nullam doctrinam bonorum morum recipient, sed semper sevi atque feroces, nigri id est turpes atque impii in gestibus iudicantur. Dentes recurvos in se habent, quia qui nocet alteri, primo se ipsum per mali propositum ledit in conscientia. Semipedales dentes habet, quia etsi ledunt corpus, animam in potestate non habent. Et hoc dignum in talibus: dum vivunt, sevire tantum possunt; mortuis vero illis et in infernum pessundatis cessay eorum tyrannidis. Hoc animal, si mane antequam uninariuam digestionem faciat, a venatoribus impetitur, de facili lassatur. Si vero urinam ante vel interim quando venatur fecerit, difficulter capture cedit, verumtamen lassatum non cedit, nam subistit in posterioribus et lassitudinem atrocitate rigida anceps dissimulate, duellum offerens venatori. Ferire tamen vel invader hominem no presumit, nisi prius ictum ab illo acceperit. Itaque bene sibi homo caveat, quia nisi primo ictu pugentis cuspidis vulnus letale armum et laterals costas dederit, de cita periclitari poterit, nisi forte iuxta ad refugium arborem inveniat quam ascendat, aut in loco humiliori reliqua terre planitie totis membris se premat; sustinebit tamen pedum illius proculcationem, quousque suc iacenti a proximo succuratur. Adversi namque, ut diximus, et recurvi dentes euis quasi quibusdam valent ad inferendam mortem atrocissimis armis, no possunt quemquam nisi elatum et rectum attingere. In vepribus fugit, ut canes qui ipsum sequuntur aut etiam dentibus tenant amoveat.
Aper cinctas bestias precedit auditu. Maribus, ut dicit Plinius, plurima asperitas est in coitu, femine in partu asperiores; et fere similiter in omni genere bestiarum. Ut dicit Experimentator, apri fimus recens et calidus precipuum remedium est contra fluxum sanguinis e naribus. Aper a dextris habet os in modum scuti et illud venabulis et macere opponit. Venabulis vel gladio perforatus super lanceam contra perforantem incedit. Ut dicit predictus auctor, caro porcina frigida est et humida, et hoc maxima domestica; lactans ceteris est humidior, et convertitur in varios humores et putridos, precipue si male dispositum stomachum invenit. Si porca multas glandes comederit quando impregnata est, abortum faciet. Proprium porcorum est escam terra subacta querere et oretenus lutosis et vilibus insudare. Primus partus porce minor erit et invalidior ceteris partubus. Quando multos habet fetus, tunc lac eius parvissimum est. In calidis regionibus melio est fetus proce hyeme quam estate, in frigidis vero contrarium; et hoc propter intemperiem regionem. In India cubitales flexus dentium sunt apris. Sunt etiam apri, de quorum frontibus frontibus cornua procedunt velut vitulis. In Arabia vero suillum genus non vivit.
Concerning the wild boar in the woodlands. The wild boar, as the Liber rerum states, the beast is powerful, and accepts no instruction of good behavior at any time, but it is always savage and defiant. It is of a dark color. It has large and curved tusks of a half-foot long, which are fit for incising. But this thing about the teeth is quite extraordinary, which is that certainly in a live beast they are able to do the same, which a weapon can, having been removed they are proven to truly lose the pig’s power of incising. Certain wild men of the world are able to be marked by the wild boar, who take to no litter or instruction of good behavior, but are also always savage and defiant, it is thus that they are judged to be dark, ugly, and wicked in their actions. They have curved teeth in themselves, because he who harms another, firstly through the practice of the evil deed he harms himself in the complicity of the crime. They have half-foot long teeth, because though the body strikes, they do not have spirit in their power. And this is appropriate in such ways: while they live, they are only able to rage; when those boars have died and have sunk into hell does this hold them back from their tyranny. This animal, if it should leave a distribution of urine in the morning, is attacked by hunters, and is exhausted from this easy thing. But if it had urinated before or at the same time when it is hunted, it submits to capture with difficulty, still it does not submit having been tired out, for it halts in the next events and, two-faced, conceals it’s weariness with a stern fury, offering a fight to the hunter. It does not dare to strike or attack the man, unless he had taken a blow from the man first. Thus man may well beware it for his own sake, because unless he had given a fatal wound between the shoulder and side ribs with the first strike of a puncturing spear, he will be able to endanger himself with regards to his life, unless by chance he should find a tree near to refuge, which he may climb, or in a lower place he should press himself hard with all his limbs on the further plain of the earth; yet he will hold back the trampling of that boar’s feet, until thus he is helped by the nearest situated man. The hostile, and as we said, curved tusks of this boar are able to bring about death just as certain, most savage weapons, they are not able to touch anyone except a raised and upright person. It flees into the thorn-bushes, so that it moves away from the dogs, which follow it or also hold it with their teeth.
The boar surpasses all beasts in listening. For the males, as Pliny says, there is the most roughness during intercourse, and they are more severe to the female during birth; and in general they are similarly in every birth of beasts. As the Experimenter says, the fresh, warm dung of the boar is a particular cure against the flowing of blood from the nostrils. The boar has a mouth from the right side in the way of a shield, and the man opposes that boar with hunting-spears and a sword. When it is pierced with hunting spears or a sword it advances on the stabbing light spear opposing and above. As the previous historian says, the flesh of the swine is cold and damp, and because of this it is especially domestic; a lactating boar is more damp than the rest, it rolls middle in various and rotten fluids, and especially if it finds a badly disposed stomach. If a sow shall consume many acorns when she is pregnant, there will be a miscarriage. It is particular of pigs to seek food from the disturbed earth and to sweat right up to the face in muddy and worthless places. The first births for the pig will be smaller and weaker than the rest of the offspring. When she has many offspring, then her milk is smallest. In hot regions the offspring from the pig is better in the winter than the summer, but truly in cold regions it is the opposite; and this is because of the lack of temperateness of the regions. In India the curves of the tusks are a cubit long for the pigs. There are also pigs, from the foreheads of which tusks appear just as from calves. But in Arabia there is no race of pigs.
abortus, us m. miscarriage; abortion
aestas, atis f. summer
amoveo, amovere, amovi, amovus 3 to move away; cause to go away
anceps, ancipitis (gen.) adj. two-faced; double
aper, apri c. wild boar
armus, i m. shoulder; flank
asperior, or, us adj. more stern; more savage; more cruel
aperitas, atis f. roughness
attingo, attingere, attigi, attactus 3 to touch
atrocissimus, a, um adj. most savage; most fierce
atrocitas, atis f. fury; cruelty; severity
auctor, oris m. historian; originator
auditus, us m. listenting; hearing
bestia, ae f. beast
calidus, a, um adj. warm; hot
captura, ae f. capture
caro, carnis f. flesh; body
cesso, cessare, cessavi, cessatus 1 to hold back; delay
costa, ae f. rib
cuspis, idis f. spear
colos, oris m. color
conscientia, ae f. complicity of crime; (joint knowledge)
cubitalis, is, e adj. cubit long
contrarius, a, um adj. opposing; opposite
converto, convertere, converti, conversus 3 to turn upside down/side-to-side/over
dens, ntis m. tusk; tooth
diffulter adv. with difficulty
digestionis, i f, distribution
dispono, disponere, disposui, dispositus 3 to dispose; set; manage
dissimulo, dissimulare, dissimulavi, dissimulatus 1 to conceal; hide
doctrina, ae f. instruction; education; doctrine
domesticus, a, um adj. domestic
duellum, i n. fight; duel
elatus, a, um adj. raised; high
esca, ae f. meat; food
etsi conj. though; although
femina, ae f. female
ferio, ferire, – , – 4 to strike; hit
ferox, ocis adj. defiant; bold; arrogant
fimus, i m. dung
flexus, us m. curve; bend
frigidus, a, um adj. cold
gestus, us m. action; movement of limbs; gesture
glans, glandis f. acorn
humidus, a, um adj. damp; moist
humilior, i adj. lower
humor, oris m. fluid; liquid
impeto, impetere, impetivi, impetitus 3 to attack
impius, a, um adj. wicked
impraegno, impraegnare, – , impraegnatus 1 to impregnate
incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus 3 to advance
incisio, onis f. incisioning
infernum, i n. hell; infernal regions
insudo, insudare, insudavi, insudatus 1 to sweat
intemperies, ei f. lack of temperateness (of weather)
invado, invadere, invasi, invasus 3 to attack
invalidior, or, us adj. weaker
iuxta adv. near
lancea, ae f. light spear
lactans, lanctantis (gen.) adj. lactating; giving milk
lassitudo, ionis f. weariness; exhaustion
lasso, lassare, lassavi, lassatus 1 to exhaust; tire
lateralis, is, e adj. side; lateral
letalis, is, e adj. fatal; lethal
longitudo, inis f. length
lutosus, a, um adj. muddy
mane adv. in the morning
mas, maris (gen.) adj. male
mirabilis, is e adj. extraordinary; marvelous
mortuus, a, um adj. dead
naris, is f. nostril
oppono, opponere, opposui, oppositus 3 to oppose
partus, us m. birth; offspring
perforo, perforare, perforavi, perforatus 1 to pierce; stab
periclitor, periclitari, periclitatus sum 1 to endanger; put in peril; test
pessundo, pessundare, pessundavi, pessundatus 1 to sink; destroy; ruin
planities, ei f. plain; flat surface
porca, ae f. sow; female swine
porcinus, a, um adj. of the swine; of the pig
praecedo, praecedere, praecessi, praecessus 3 to surpass
praecipue adv. especially
praecipuus, a, um adj. particular
praedictus, a, um adj. previous; preceding
praesumo, praesumere, praesumpsi, praesumtus 3 to dare
premo, premere, pressi, pressus 3 to press hard; overwhelm
primo adv. firstly
proculcationis, i f. trampling
propositum, i n. practice; conduct
putridus, a, um adj. rotten
quousque adv. until
recurvus, a, um adj. curved; bent round
refugium, i(i) n. refuge
remedium, i(i) n. cure; remedy
rigidus, a, um adj. stern; hard
saevio, saevire, saevivi, saevitus 4 to rage; rave
scutum, i n. shield
seculum, i n. world
semipedalis, is, e adj. half-foot; measuring half a foot
saevus, a, um adj. savage
signo, signare, signavi, signatus 1 to mark
silvester, is adj. wild
silvestri, is n. woodlands
stomachus, i m. ill-temper; annoyance
subigo, subigere, subegi, subactus 3 to disturb; conquer
subsisto, subsistere, substiti, – 3 to halt; stand
succurro, succurrere, succurri, succursus 3 to help
suillus, a, um adj. of swine
trux, trucis (gen.) adj. wild; savage
tyrannis, idis f. tyranny; cruel regime
urina, ae f. urine
urinaria, ae adj. of urine
venabulum, i n. hunting-spear
venator, oris m. hunter
venor, venari, venatus sum 1 to hunt
vepris, is m. thorn-bush
verumtamen conj. still; but yet; nevertheless
vilis, is, e adj. worthless; cheap
vitulus, i m. calf
Liber rerum: refers to Thomas’ encyclopedia.
que: a Medieval form of “and”
seva: is saeva, the nominative singular form of saevus, a, um.
mortue: is mortuae, the dative singular form of mortuus, a, um
sevi: is saevi, the nominitve, plural form of saevus, a, um
semipedalis longitidinis: semipedalis is the adjective pedalis, is, e with the prefix pre-, meaning “half-foot.” It is a genitive of description, indicating a measurement and taken with dentes.
ledit: laedit from laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus (3), meaning “to hurt; strike; wound.”
ledunt: refer to previous note.
sevire: saevire from saevio, saevire, saevivi, saevitus
mortuis… pessundatis: ablative absolute.
si mane… impetitur: a mixed (future less vivid and present general) condition.
urinariam digestionem: urinariam is from urina, ae, which is made into an adjective with the suffix –ari, meaning “of urine.” Digestionem is from digero, digerere, digessi, digestus, meaning “to distribute,” which is made into a noun with the suffix –ionis to indicate the result of the action.
si vero… capture cedit: a mixed (future-most-vivid and present general) condition.
capture: is capturae, the dative, singular form from captura, capturae
in posterioribus: posterioribus can refer to later events in conjunction with in.
presumit: praesumit from praesumo, praesumere, praesumpsi, praesumptus.
iacenti a proximo: iacenti indicates a man that is “situated”, not necessarily “lying,” “nearest.”
proculcationem: from proculco, proculcare, proculcavi, proculcatus, meaning “to trample on,” which is made into a noun with the suffix –ionis to indicate the result of the action
femine: is feminae, the dative singular form from femina, ae.
elatum et rectum: must indicate that the man must be standing for the boar to harm him. The adjectives are seemingly synonymous, “raised and upright.”
macere: is machaerae, the dative singular form from macchaera, ae, meaning “single-edged sword.”
venabulis… perforatus: ablative ablsolute.
hoc: ablative of cause, meaning “because of.”
convertitur: from converto, convertere, converti, conversus, taken in the middle sense to mean “it turns upside-down for itself,” here taken as “rolls.”
subacta: from subigo, subigere, subegi, subactus. Refers to land that has been “disturbed” in some way. It is possible that it refers to land that has seen human activity, and have been cultivated.
oretenus: unattested anywhere else, but seems to come from os, meaning “face,” and tenus, meaning “up to.”
ut canes… amoveat: purpose clause
precedit: praecedit from praecedo, praecedere, praecessi, praecessus.
ut dicit Plinius: refers to Pliny’s work Naturalis Historia or Natural History.
Ut dicit Experimentator: refers to the writer of a well-known work for which Thomas does not known name the author.
precipuum: praecipuum from praecipuus, a, um.
Ut dicit predictus auctor: refers to again to Pliny and his work, Naturalis Historia.
si porca… faciet: mixed (future-most-vivid and future-more-vivid) condition.
hyeme: alternate form for hieme, from hiems, is.
estate: alternate form for aestate, from aestas, is.
In Arabia… vivit: Literally translated as “But in Arabia a race of pigs does not live.” However, here it is translated more eloquently as “But in Arabia there is no race of pigs.”